Flowering took place several weeks later this year than last year. Not sure why, but there is a strong possibility it is due to a very dry winter here. Meteorologists are calling it a drought, although it wouldn’t resemble what most of the world calls such a thing.
Last week, the rains returned, lucky us, and spring weather is back to it’s soggy normal here. For us, these flowers mark the beginning of typically eight weeks of early-morning trips to the vines to do the pollination. Flowering in the vanillery was slow to get started, but it looks like it’s going to be good. This is the first year we expect to get a decent harvest out of it, and it’s going get better every year for several years.
It occurred to me today that counting new shoots might be a good way to monitor the flowering potential of the vanillery. I was inspecting the vines and thinking about ways to quantify the success of each planting. For each cutting we planted, most sprouted one new shoot, a few more than one. Enough time has passed so that some of the original new shoots have thrown off new shoots themselves. Since each node of the vanilla plant can either grow a new shoot or flower once (if at all), it is necessary to keep the vines constantly growing. Maintaining a good number of growing tips means more potential flowering locations for the next season.
First year vines are smooth and soft to the touch, especially the growing tip, which is quite soft and tender. As the vines age, they get darker, harder and end up being quite sturdy with a dull, waxy sheen. In the first year, the vines are going for distance, tending to climb as high as possible without wasting energy on side shoots. In the second or third season, the mature nodes are likely to branch or flower if there is sufficient vitality.
In march of 2015, I counted 38 growing tips in the vanillery.
While the first vanilla pods of the season are coming in, the first flower buds are also appearing. Some of these spurts of new growth will result in new vines, branching off of the mature vines, but most of these will form the flowering racemes. The early spring is when a lot of new growth occurs, and the vanilla farmer (me) watches with some apprehension as the flowering racemes appear (or not!) determining the size of the new season’s crop. In a week or so, the morning ritual of the hand pollination will begin.
The flowering season of 2014 was light for us, several areas never went to flower, so the 2015 harvest season will be small. One of the things we’ve learned about vanilla is that while it will grow lush and green in the shade, it requires part sun to come to flower. As the forest grows around the vines, they can end up in shade too deep to flower. This year, I cleared branches above and around the forest trellises to let more light in. We’re hoping for a better flowering season this year, and indeed it’s starting strongly.
Last year, I noticed a couple of very small vanilla shoots in the bed under one of my vanilla trellises. Looking closer, I realized that these were clearly the almost miraculous appearance of vanilla seedlings! I tried several internet searches to find out: was this common, had other vanilla growers reported this? I found no reports, nothing about finding or successfully producing a vanilla seedling or that a vanilla seed had germinated naturally. All I found was that it could be done artificially using a general technique for starting orchid seeds called “flasking,” which is basically creating sterile conditions for an orchid seed to grow.
And yet, here they were, 3 vanilla seedlings that had started spontaneously in the mulch under some of my vanilla plants. The one in the photograph here is the only one that was easily photographed, the rest were growing up a wooden trellis, too crowded in by other vanilla vines to be clearly seen. You can see that there is some damage to the stem near the ground, looks like some kind of nibbling creature got to it. Since it had rootlets developing, I decided to cut it and move it into the nursery where it could continue to grow.
I would guess that a big part of the reason this isn’t reported is that typical vanilla culture doesn’t support allowing the natural seeding process to occur. Vanilla pods (I don’t like calling them “beans” for some reason) are mostly harvested before they are botanically ripe because pods that have ripened and begun to open are of a lower grade. In any case, all the pods are harvested, split or not. Sometimes it happens that pods get overlooked and left on the vine, and I will sometimes leave a pod or two on the vine if they are small and have gone too far. These pods split open, become dark brown and dry and emit a delicious fragrance. Once you see this happen there is no wondering how vanilla as a scent and flavoring was discovered! The aroma is strong and easily detected several yards away from the plant.
As a hobbyist, I planted vanilla in the garden under trees on trellises, leaving the ground and surroundings alone. Vanilla is a forest plant, it wants protection from wind and sun, a lot of humidity, and a deep bed of mulch and humus in which to spread it’s roots. I like to think that the environment around and under my vanilla trellises is completely natural to the species, and therefore a viable location for seedling development. It seems the vanilla plants agree.
Vanilla is generally propagated vegetatively, it’s relatively easy and the resulting plant can be productive in the second year, occasionally the first. There is really no reason to do it otherwise, vanilla grows rapidly so there is always plenty of material to take cuttings from. I suppose that there are vanilla breeders out there that are working with crosses to see if other characteristics could be developed, but most vanilla growers aren’t so concerned with things like variety and genetics. There is almost no discussion of vanilla genetics on the web, it seems to be a relatively uninvestigated subject as far as I can tell. I wonder what that says about the genetic diversity of vanilla as cultivated worldwide?
There are two species of culinary vanilla, but well over a hundred species in the Vanilla genus, so the potential for hybridization is considerable. Vanilla orchids in general have been shown to be capable of hybridizing, but despite it’s importance, Vanilla planifolia (the main vanilla of commerce) has not been hybridized for the purpose of agriculture, at least not as far as I have been able to find. Vanilla x tahitensis (Tahitian vanilla) is a hybrid of Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla odorata, but it’s not known how that came about. The origins of Tahitian vanilla are a bit of a mystery, but the cross could have occurred naturally as these species share similar regions.
This doesn’t shed light on the genetics within the species, however. Are there local variants of vanilla in it’s natural range (Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean)? Probably, but I haven’t come across any discussion of this subject. What I do know is that even when a flower self-pollinates (as Vanilla often does) there will be some natural genetic variation. This means that the seedling vines I have here are going to be slightly different from the parent vines. I’ll be watching the vine that I have transplanted for any discernable differences, and report my findings here if anything interesting is noted.
(Some of the background information for this post comes from Vanilla Orchids: Natural History and Cultivation by Ken Cameron)
Today we’re rolling out our first products for sale! Over the years, we’ve sold these beans through friends, at local farmer’s markets and to local culinary professionals, and though we always intended to make our beans widely available, we always seemed to be too busy to make that happen. Well, now it’s time to offer our unique product to everyone on the internet.
Our first offerings will be very simple: Grade A and Grade B whole vanilla beans and 2-ounce bottles of our homemade Kauaʻi rum vanilla extract.
Anyone interested in cuisine who has poked around the Internet has learned that there is a staggeringly huge number of food blogs out there! I’m certainly in favor of it in general, it’s made information about foods and their preparation accessible. You can type in the name of an ingredient or preparation and get an encyclopedia of information and opinions…not to mention photography ranging from too-beautiful to “what were they thinking?” but you can learn a lot. I certainly do.
Part of my reason for posting is to present an interesting food blog I came across in my research, Edible Geography, which is blowing me away in it’s thoroughness and energy in exploring a wide range of food-related topics. Looking for anything about vanilla on the site, I was brought to an article on vanilla flavoring that was a fascinating look at the kinds of vanilla flavoring available. Continue reading Vanilla Flavor and Edible Geography
On APRIL 23, 2014 our vanillery was completed. The 20′ x 50′ shadehouse was constructed with the help of jonathan jay, Roland Barker, Lisa Parker and Dave Kasimoff. In the cool, moist mulch of the trellis rows, the vanilla cuttings are slowly sprouting root-like filaments that will anchor the vines and draw in moisture and nutrients. For now, they are protected from the sun and kept moist while they grow in to their new home, the vanillery.